This is a list of bookmarks to help you continue your CPD from where you last left off. It is updated every time you visit a new page.
The list is stored in a cookie on this computer: if you switch to a different computer, the list will be different.
It includes expanded feedback for all the choices, and some comments about the questions. You can click on "wrong" answers to see relevant feedback.
1. The best image format to save clinical pictures is:
This format is very hard to edit, so not good for practical purposes.
This format is easy to edit, so not good for legal purposes.
Well done. RAW is good for legal purposes, and JPEG for practical purposes.
This format is easy to edit, so not good for legal purposes.
Our guidance is to use the jpeg for all practical purposes, and safely archive the RAW in the unlikely event that it is ever needed for legal reasons, and as a backup if you accidentally delete the jpeg.
There is a lot of debate about whether RAW or jpeg is "better", or whether lossless formats like TIFF should be used instead of jpeg. These debates are of more interest to professional photographers and forensic investigators.
2. We recommend a DSLR camera on the course. SLR stands for:
This is not what the R stands for.
Although the image is reversed by the mirror and again by the pentaprism, this is not what the R stands for.
Although refraction of light is an essential feature of almost all cameras, this is not what the R stands for.
Well done. A REFLEX camera is one where the image that comes through the lens is REFLECTED by a mirror onto a viewing screen.
In days of old, there were twin lens reflex cameras. The lower lens passed the image onto the film, the upper lens REFLECTED the image onto a horizontal glass screen, and was viewed by looking vertically downwards into the camera hood at the top.
The invention of the single lens reflex camera was a major advance in photography.
3. To set up your Flickr account, what email address must you use?
Flickr does not provide email addresses for the public to use.
Well done. Flickr is owned by Yahoo - they bought it in 2005. Insisting on a Yahoo email address allows them to gather data about people who use Flickr. If you prefer not to use Flickr for this course, you can use another file sharing site of your choice.
Hotmail is owned by Microsoft, a rival to the owners of the Flickr site.
The owners of the Flickr site insist on people using a specific email address.
Be aware that whatever file sharing site you use, it is likely that personal data will be gathered about you.
4. Identify which of the following is an advantage of compact cameras for clinical photography.
It is very hard to achieve consistent magnification with compacts.
Even if manual focusing is possible, the small LCD screen does not give enough detail to see if you are properly in focus.
Well done - this is their advantage. Some would say their only advantage for dental photography!
The small internal flash unit does not give even illumination to the top, bottom, left and right of the image.
A proper clinical camera setup is a fantastic investment, and will change the way you practise dentistry greatly for the better. Our experience is that other types of camera will cause you frustration, and you may have an initial burst of enthusiasm for dental photography, but it fades shortly afterwards...
5. Which of these mirrors can be used for good intra-oral dental photography? (Multiple answers allowed)
Front-coated dental mirror TRUE. Useful for images of individual teeth, particularly if you want to get the distal and lingual surfaces into the picture.
Back-coated dental mirror FALSE. Back-coating gives a problem with double images, as there is some reflection from the glass surface as well as from the mirror coating under the glass.
Front-coated occlusal mirror TRUE. This is a great asset for dental photography.
Back-coated occlusal mirror FALSE. Back-coating gives a problem with double images, as there is some reflection from the glass surface as well as from the mirror coating under the glass.
Polished all-metal mirror TRUE. Metal mirrors are tougher than coated glass mirrors. However, all these mirrors have a limited shelf life and you should not expect any of them to last for ever.
When mirror images are taken, it is the convention to show them "the right way round". Use a photo editor to flip the image horizontally (i.e. "mirror" the mirror view).
When a small mouth mirror is used, and much of the mouth is visible in the shot, you need to be careful. Either crop the image so only the mirrored tooth is visible (then flip and rotate it so it is level), or leave the picture as it is so it is obviously a view of a mouth with a small mirror in it.
6. Which of these are features of the ideal lens for dental photography? (Multiple answers allowed)
Prime TRUE. A prime lens has a fixed focal length. One less thing that needs adjusting, it speeds up clinical photography and improves the consistency of your shots.
Zoom FALSE. Although great for general photography, a zoom lens is time-consuming to adjust to exactly the same focal length each time it is used, and when you are busy one often forgets to do this, wasting even more time.
Macro TRUE. A true macro lens allows 1:1 magnification. That is, the image on the sensor is the same size as the object being photographed.
Wide angle FALSE. You need to be much too close to the patient - unpleasant for them. This causes distortions, problems with uneven illumination from the ring flash, and prevents the buccal corridors being in the picture with anterior shots.
Telephoto TRUE. This allows you to take dental photographs from a reasonable distance away from the patient.
Standard FALSE. The DSLR "standard" lens gives a "true view", neither wide angle nor telephoto. Although possible to use in dental photography, this is not ideal. You have to be very close to the patient, and there are problems illuminating both the front and the back of the mouth evenly.
The Prime Macro Telephoto lens is the gold standard for dental photography.
7. The ideal lens for dental photography has a fixed focal length lens that is:
This is a very wide angle lens, no good for undistorted close up dental photography.
Although usable for dental photography, it is not the best. It does not provide the 1:1 magnification that is sometimes needed. The best that can be achieved is often 1:3, which is OK for most purposes.
Well done. This focal length is the perfect balance for close up photography of individual teeth, and full face shots.
This lens gives a field of view that is too narrow. Although usable for close-up dental photography, you would have to stand too far away for face shots.
Another potential problem with 200mm is that you need a much more powerful flash as you are twice as far away.
8. Which of these applies to a suitable flash for high quality dental photography? (Multiple answers are allowed)
Can be an LED type FALSE. These are underpowered, in our view no good for dental photography.
Should be set weak enough to allow natural light to mix with the flash FALSE. For consistency, we don't want natural light to make an impact on our dental photographs.
Should be set strong enough to prevent most natural light from mixing with the flashTRUE. This gives consistent colour and brightness to our intra-oral dental images
Must be circular in shapeFALSE. This gives the most even illumiation, but twin flashes (side by side) are also effective.
Possibly a little unfair saying multiple answers allowed when only one was correct, but if we said only one, it would obviously just be a decision between the second and third choices.
9. Which of the following features are desirable in a DSLR camera body for intra-oral dental photography? (Multiple answers allowed.)
Automatic settings for close up photography FALSE. To get eaxctly the image we want, full manual control is needed.
A Live View LED screen FALSE. Very difficult to get perfect focus.
Image stabilisation to prevent blurring FALSE. Not a problem with the fast shutter speed used for dental photography.
HD Video TRUE. Might be useful for the lab, and for use in patient education.
Flip-out LCD ScreenFALSE. Good for general photography, but not needed in dental photography where we recommend all shots are taken using the DSLR eyepiece.
10. When a dental photograph has been resized to use on the web, which of these formats is suitable? (Multiple answers allowed. You may need to do some independent searching.)
JPG (jpeg) TRUE.
BMP (bitmap) FALSE.
GIF (graphics interchange format) FALSE. Although this format is supported by browsers, it only displays 256 colours. This makes it suitable for graphics and logos, but not for photographs.
PNG (portable networks graphic) TRUE.
JPG and PNG are the only photographic image formats supported by all browsers. PNG is a lossless format, so big files that can take a long time to download and display. JPG is much faster to display, although too much compression can reduce the quality.
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